FCDL

FCDL (Fundatia Communitara de Dezvoltare Local)

Between 1996-1997 the Community Foundation for Local Development, Brezoi implemented a first Program of Active Measures to alleviate unemployment in the area (PAEM). The foundation set up a ‘Traditional Crafts Park’ and built two school workshops for wood processing, wickerwork furniture, carpet weaving and traditional embroideries. As a result of the PAeM Program, over 150 persons were trained, and some of them continued the activity as individual entrepreneurs in the area or started to work in other european countries.
Other projects include:
Starting in 1997, the Foundation has developed another project co-financed by EU, the FIDEL program for local economic development. The foundation adopted sustainable policies indeveloping the production of wood and wool products without pollution and purchasing ecological equipment for timber drying,wool spinning, sawdust briqueting. The low-tech approach of traditional crafts was supplemented with new technological additions. A ‘business incubator’ was opened for small emerging enterprises and local craftsmen .
Another step in ensuring conditions for local development was to set up a core of touristic infrastructure in the area, by starting with a ‘a workshop for historical building renovation and apprenticeship of traditional crafts’ open to international students, which is another PhARe project. This periodical event was supposed to draw attention and generate new dynamics in the area which has a high potential for tourism.

website: www.fundatiabrezoi.ro/

Brezoi

Brezoi
Brezoi, Brezoi, Romania
45.3370891, 24.2473143

R-Urban

R-Urban - constructing new cultures of resilience

« The Earth is not a present from our parents. We only borrowed if from our children»

Indian proverb

 

Why ?

It is perhaps the first time in history that our society develops global awareness and calls for the necessity of collective action to face the challenge of the future: global warming, depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources, economic recession, population growth, housing and employment crisis, consequential increase of social divide and geo-political conflicts, etc.

The Earth’s population currently consumes two and a half planets. This consumption is mainly located in the urban and suburban areas of the developed countries.  There is an urgent need for efficient new models of ecological living and urban retrofitting.  While governments and organisations seem to take too long to agree and act, many initiatives started at a local scale. 

These initiatives are nevertheless confronted with the difficulty of changing the current economic and social model of society based on increased global consumption. How to construct a socially oriented economy, which does not depend on the global market?  How to initiate progressive practices and sustain ecological lifestyles while acting locally? How to reactivate cultures of collaboration and sharing in a world that promotes individualism and competition?

The R-Urban strategy proposed by atelier d’architecture autogérée explores alternatives to the current models of living, producing and consuming in cities, suburbs and the countryside. It draws on the active involvement of the citizen in creating solidarity networks, closing local cycles between production and consumption, operating changes in lifestyles, acting ecologically at the level of everyday life.

What?

R-Urban proposes a retrofitting of the city through principles following the ecological Rs: Recycle, Reuse, Repair, Re-think, etc.  

R-Urban also aims to explicitly reconnect the Urban with the Rural through new kinds of relations, more complementary and less hierarchical.

As other emerging strategies, it aims to increase the social, urban and cultural Resilience. 
In contrast to ecological resilience,  social, urban and cultural resilience could be adaptive and transformative, inducing change that offers huge potential to rethink assumptions and build new systems.  It is this transformative quality that interests us within the R-Urban approach, which is not only about sustainability but also about change and re-invention. 

In the case of European cities, the resilience capacity should also allow for the preservation of specific democratic and cultural values, local histories and traditions, while adapting to more economic and ecological lifestyles. A city can only become resilient with the active involvement of its inhabitants. To stimulate this commitment, we need tools, knowledge and places to test new practices and citizen initiatives, and to showcase the results and benefits of a resilient transformation of the city.

Strategy

The R-Urban strategy is built upon coordinated actions at different local scales (domestic, neighbourhood, city, region) and complementarities between five fields of activity: 

residential (co-operative ecological housing)
economy (social and local economy)
agriculture (organic urban agriculture)
culture (local cultural production and trans-local dissemination)
mobility (no fossil fuel dependent transport)

These fields cover the essential aspects that define the contemporary urban condition. Flows, networks and cycles of production - consumption are formed across these fields, closing chains of need and supply as locally as possible, but also in as many and as diversified ways as possible. To overcome the current crisis, we must try, as French philosopher A. Gorz states ‘to produce what we consume and consume what we produce’.   R-Urban interprets this chain of production - consumption broadly, well beyond the material aspect, including the cultural, cognitive and affective dimensions.

Where?

The R-Urban strategy could be applied in suburban contexts to deal with the collapse of the modern urban ideals (monotonous urban fabric, obsolete tower blocks, real estate bankruptcy, segregation, social and economic exclusion, land pollution…) and their transformations. Between the urban and the rural, the suburban condition could valorise the potential of both.
R-URBAN strategy could also operate within dense urban contexts, in which the rural is internalised and disseminated through specific practices, economies and lifestyles (i.e. urban agriculture, exchange systems, self-build, waste-recycling, etc.).

Local Mapping

We have started by identifying micro-local practices and interstitial spaces that could immediately be connected and activated (i.e. local skills and ecological practices, active individuals and organisations, underused spaces and urban leftovers, opportunities or gaps in rules and regulations, etc.). Local residents are involved in the setting up and management of the strategy, contributing to its social, environmental and economic sustainability. The project fosters local exchanges and (rural and urban) networks and tests methods of self-management, self-build and self-production.

Prototypes

In order to begin, we have constructed and tested a number of prototypes for urban agriculture (in Paris and Colombes, a suburb in the North West of Paris) and related practices: recycling and cultivating roofs (ECOroof), vertical green walls (aaa office), windows (aaa office), compost toilets (Passage 56), recycling of urban matters and their integration into agricultural soil (Passage 56) etc.

We have also set up social, economic and cultural networks based on existing and emerging local initiatives (AMAP St. Blaise, Jardins d’Audra).

We have conceived and experimented with ecological devices and locally closed cycles: water, energy, waste (Passage 56, Jardins d’Audra). 

We have identified and encouraged local skills necessary to support such initiatives, some of them marginalised or overseen and have invited specialists to contribute to learning and re-skilling processes (workshops Passage 56).

We have elaborated forms of knowledge production and skill exchange (Participative Urban Laboratory-LUP).

These prototypes allowed us to experiment with simple methods of implementation of an ecological approach at the level of everyday life and to generate self-managed collective use and environmental practices. 
 
Cultural resilience; cultures of resilience

In contrast to other initiatives that deal exclusively with issues of sustainability as technological, environmental or social,  R-Urban states the importance of culture. The future is culturally formed as much as the past is, says Arjun Appadurai, and this is because culture deals with ‘the capacity to aspire’.

Within a resilient condition we need to reach an ‘ecosophic’ stage of culture, which considers mental, environmental and social aspects alike. In this respect, R-Urban operates with an extended notion of culture that includes material and immaterial production, skills, mentalities, habits, patterns of inhabitations, etc…  
But how exactly does this relate to the idea of local? Can a resilient culture be localised? These were the questions that R-Urban brought to the agenda of the Rhyzom network. 

Localisation is a term usually discussed in relation to resilience. Rob Hopkins, the founder of Transition Town network, defines it like this: ‘The concept of localisation suggests that the move away from globalised distribution systems is not a choice but an inevitable change in direction for humanity. The rebuilding of local economies offers a response to the challenges presented by peak oil, as well as a tremendous opportunity to rethink and reinvent local economies’.  However, within the contemporary condition, culture can’t be assigned anymore to a geographic location. If we can localise economy we will never be able to fully localise culture. Cultural resilience negotiates between the necessity of rebuilding local economies and keeping us globally connected.

But how can we still be connected in a resilient way? How to associate and empower resilient practices, skills, mentalities, habits, economies at a bigger scale? Maybe ‘from local to local’, through relational institutions which federate heterogeneous components, both cultural and environmental, amateur and professional, civic and educational… In such way, resilient practices could go beyond the sphere of the local and become trans-local, could operate a re-weaving of scales and issues through the construction of a trans-local mode of functioning.

Living practices, deep locals, cultural and social biodiversity

As many other projects within the Rhyzom network, R-Urban addressed also the idea of a deep local, a multilayered local made out of multiple and heterogenous micro-locals.  Such micro-locals are also expressed at the level of everyday life practices, proximity dynamics, domestic habits, neighbourhood relations. They represent specific cultures of living.

In addition to existing local cultures of living, R-Urban proposes new collective forms of these cultures through reinventing and revitalising proximity relations based on solidarities (i.e. ways of being involved and deciding collectively, sharing spaces and group facilities, rules and principles of co-habitation etc.). Urban life styles in neo-liberal societies have abandoned progressively the different forms of solidarity that were perceived as inadequate and outdated. Though, it is exactly these relations of reciprocity which constitute the fundament of social progress. In his analysis of the connections between the economic and the political (inspired by Tarde’s sociology), Lazzarato describes the civilisation of ‘progress’ as ‘a constantly renewed effort to replace the reciprocal possession by the unilateral possession’.  Or, it is exactly these relations of reciprocity and solidarity that are missing in the urban environment today.

In contrast, the dwelling and the living models proposed by R-Urban are based on solidarity relations and implicitly produce sociability and common values and affective relations. They can allow for further emergence of conditions for the production of locality through authentic cultural phenomena, which are fed by their territorial anchoring and their transversal co-operation 

The ‘locality’ is formed as such through a multiplicity of micro-social and cultural phenomena which are embedded in their territories.  Guattari underlined the role of micro-practices in what he called a heterogenesis process: ‘it is essential that micro-political and micro-social practices, new solidarities organise themselves (…) It is not only that these different levels of practicing haven’t been homogenised  (…) , but that they operate in a heterogenesis process’.  It is this kind of heterogenesis process that can produce and preserve local cultural and social biodiversity which is based on sustainable solidarity.

Transformations have to take place at micro-scale with each individual, with each subjectivity and this is what constructs a culture of resilience and at the same time a resilient culture. As Hopkins puts it: ‘Resilience is not just an outer process: it is also an inner one, of becoming more flexible, robust and skilled’ . The culture of resilience includes processes of reskilling, skills-sharing, building social networks, learning from others, learning from other experiences. These micro-social and micro-cultural practices are most of the time related to lifestyles and individual gestures, they prompt attention to details, to singularities, to the capacity of creativity and innovation that operates at the level of everyday life. R-Urban offers a platform for such practices to gain visibility and feel empowered in their singularity while being connected to others through relations of reciprocity. This is a form of cultural resilience.

Pioneering R-Urban

Currently, R-Urban strategy is tested for a first implementation in Colombes, a city of 30 000 inhabitants in the North West suburbs of Paris. The local council and a number of local organisations ( …) have formed the first R-Urban Agency. Available plots have been identified and connections have started to be established between some of them.

An urban agriculture pole has been initiated at the foot of a high-rise building on a plot negotiated for reversible use with the Poste company which owns the land. A social economy cluster and organic food market will be initiated in connection with the cultivation of plots. A Recycling Unit which will process construction materials and a co-operative housing built from these materials will start next year. Seminaries, debates and workshops disseminate knowledge and skills necessary to the process. A trans-local research centre will disseminate cultures of resilience in the region.  The future is R-Urban!


ECO-Nomadic School

The nomadic and temporary school for mutual learning and teaching of eco-civic practices in different regions of Europe will reinforce democratic values by the transfer of skills and knowledge on issues of resilience in different urban contexts, involving participants of diverse ages and social and cultural backgrounds.  The project is based on a partnership between 4 organisations already activating in the transmission of ecological skills and knowledge: (AAA-FR, AGENCY/ UoS-UK, MyVillage-AL and FCDL-RO) and takes support from the EU network RHYZOM, in which these partners are involved.

Four exemplary European urban contexts are targeted: metropolitan suburban (FR), post-industrial urban, (UK) suburban rural (AL) isolated rural (Ro).

The project has 3 phases:

I - participative training workshop organised by AAA in the suburban area of Northern Paris, involving students and teachers from SSoA, administrative personnel and local organisations from Colombes, community organisations from Brezoi, specialists and trainers from Rhyzom and My Village to identify possibilities for implementation and explore methods for teaching and learning of ecological practices (ie. eco- and self-building, reuse, recycling, urban agriculture, handcrafts, alternative economy etc.).

II -  mutual teaching and learning through a series of four civic seminars and ‘live projects’ (organised by each partner and involving  the trainees from phaseI which will now act as trainers, local residents and organisations) on issues and practices of everyday life ecology, within the framework of a nomadic classroom in Colombes-Fr, Sheffield-UK, Hofen-Al, Brezoi-Ro

III - dissemination through symposium co-organised by all partners in Paris and involving a number of trainees, which will diffuse eco-civic knowledge, skills and practices at European scale and rise interest within other publics on ecological and civic values + a nomadic exhibition and local distribution of fanzines and leaflets in different languages as well as via the internet.

The ECO-Nomadic School project has received support from the EC lifelong learning programme Grundtvig,


website by dorian moore @ the useful arts organisation